Shared cars Shared bikes Shared rides & the rest Co-mobility & themes
Events News & opinion About Contact Join / donate Accreditation

Integration and Mobility as a Service (MAAS)

Integration between modes lets people make more seamless door-to-door journeys.


MaaS provides people with an agreed package so that a lot of the worry of how to travel (cost risk, certainty etc) is reduced.




Individually and together, they make travelling by combinations of sustainable modes more attractive and easier to build into modern mobility lifestyles. People are increasingly demanding services and packages that fit their lifestyles; good integration and MaaS, comprising flexible co-mobility services, are challenging car ownership as a norm.






Integrating modes of transport to create more seamless  journeys, where all elements work together rather than compete with each other, is a recognised holy grail of users and operators. Integration comprises any – or ideally all – of three main components:



Co-location – “cheek-to-cheek” interchange; shared cars & bikes at bus stops and rail stations; mobility hubs – such as Bremen’s Mobil Punkte or Belgium’s Mobipunt or Hamburg’s Switchh points. All of these build co-mobility into streetscapes, facilitate integration and free-up space for other uses.



Ticketing – ideally whole-journey door-to-door ticketing or smart ticketing accounts such as Reading’s EasyGo (see below) (also West Yorkshire’s Metro card, Norwich’s Holdall card or Nottingham’s CityCard), or easy ticket add-ons (e.g. Plusbus or Plusbike)



Information & marketing – alerting people to possibilities for linking modes – from pop-ups when booking one mode to integrated journey planners such as Google Maps or Citymapper.









The whole package of co-location, information and whole-journey ticketing is still rare but accepted as required for making multi-modal journeys a norm in people’s lifestyles. Increasingly, Local Authorities and operators recognise the value of this, as well as gathering rich intelligence on user behaviours to further unlock the potential of integrated services.

Co-cars, Co-bikes, Exeter



The UK’s first exclusively electric on-street bike share, bikes and cars are available on the same app and smart card booking platform. Members can pick up Co-bikes and Co-cars in Exeter and the Exe Estuary; at railway stations, business parks and Devon County Council. Alternatively, casual users can unlock a bike from the Nextbike touch-and-pay terminals.

Cologne KVB-RAD Nextbike


The city operates a bike share scheme through public transport provider, Kolner Verkehrs-Betriebe (KVB), in partnership with Nextbike. A total of 1,450 bikes are available on the network. Using the KVB/VRS card, (VRS being the transport association network), seamless integration is possible across public transport with members able to combine travel with light rail transport, buses, bikes and car sharing.



Reading EasyGo



The multimodal approach of Reading Borough Council’s EasyGo project launched in September 2016. It uses smartcard technology to integrate the Co-wheels car club vehicles, ReadyBike cycle hire (provided by Hourbike) alongside Reading buses. Their website, allows for joint booking with one card for each mode.

Mobility as a Service

In brief, MaaS brings together different ways of travelling into a single system so that it is easy for people to build mobility lifestyles that mix together modes. MaaS is to travel what monthly bundles of phone + mobile + broadband is to communications.


A main benefit is that its core value of making mode-mixing easy provides compelling modern lifestyle options that challenge car dependency.


Various more detailed definitions exist from the MaaS Alliance, MaaS Global and the UITP.



Comprehensive annual summary of MaaS developments have existed since 2017. Two important UK pilots illustrate MaaS well:



WhimApp is allowing users in the West Midlands to trial monthly mobility packages that include public transport, taxi, car and bikeshare.



Navigogo has been co-designing MaaS services with young people with the intention not only of facilitating independent mobility lifestyles, but to avoid people becoming car dependent in the first place. This has demonstrated that payment & journey planning are not enough – young people need tailored information, offers and incentives to make the offer compelling.





Integration between modes lets people make more seamless door-to-door journeys.

MaaS and co-mobility



MaaS needs transport services to work in two ways. This is where co-mobility services come in:


• Services have to work together to enable whole end-to-end journeys. Shared cars and bikes need to integrate well with other modes – often as first/last mile solutions – in order to enable multi-modal end-to-end journeys to be a reality


• A variety of types of service need to exist so that people can choose the most appropriate one(s) for different types of journey. 


The existence of shared cars, bikes and rides in an area alongside (or – sometimes – instead of) scheduled transport services add to the utility and attractiveness of multi-mode mobility lifestyles enabled and facilitated by MaaS as an alternative to car dependency.


Co-Mobility services rely more heavily upon the digital infrastructure such as location services and mobile internet than traditional transport options. They also tend to be more flexible and responsive in terms of their ability to develop and react to changing demands. Together, these mean they can be more easily integrated into a MAAS platform.