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Existing and emerging models

This shared rides section encompasses the sharing of specific journeys in a private car, taxi or demand-responsive minibus.


Boundaries are blurring, but importantly, they work alongside other types of shared and public transport services to enable flexible modern mobility lifestyles.


In this section we look at different models of shared rides:

CoMoUK does not include ride sourcing / ride hailing services such as Uber and Lyft as co-mobility.

2+ car share / lift share

Sharing of journeys in a private car is also known as 2+ car sharing, carpooling, lift sharing or 2+ ride sharing. These are peer-to-peer services, whereby a private citizen offers to share a trip with one or more passengers.


People share rides formally through established organisation web and mobile apps, as well as informally through networks in neighbourhoods, communities and workplaces. Such collaborative tools and networks make it easier for passengers to find the appropriate rides and for the driver to not only share, but also increase the number of riders they can pick-up and drop-off in their vehicles on along the route of that trip.

Key features

• UK law means drivers cannot make a profit, but can charge for reasonable expenses

• Pre-arranged only

• Often used in closed groups such as workplaces

• Service provider makes income from licences from local authorities and employers


Services such as Uber and Lyft viewed in mobility terms are effectively taxi services. This is because the car journey is generated to serve a rider’s demand with the driver being paid (like a taxi), rather than the rider occupying a spare seat in a car that was already making the journey.


Liftshare is a social enterprise that helps people travel more sustainably by sharing their journey; over 300,000 active members.


For employers, Liftshare provides innovative 2+ car sharing software and personal travel planning tools. It has helped over 600 businesses and communities set up their own online journey-matching tools to encourage 2+ car sharing and make better use of parking spaces. Its dedicated business team provides ongoing support services to help employers market and monitor their scheme effectively.

BlaBlaCar is a trusted community marketplace that connects drivers with empty seats to passengers looking for a ride. BlaBlaCar users transport over 700,000 passengers every month, creating an entirely new, people powered, transport network. With a dedicated customer service centre, a state of the art web and mobile platform and a fast-growing community of users, BlaBlaCar is making travel social, money-saving and more efficient for millions of members across Europe.

GoCarShare has created a community by connecting people through Facebook. Users can see whether they share friends, have similar interests or like similar music, and there is an eBay style rating system.


GoCarShare has formed partnerships with over 100 festivals and events, and features GoCarShare pages for fans travelling to football matches and students back to university.

Jambusters services, used by major private and public sector employers, include 2+ car sharing, parking administration and travel planning. They are highly flexible and tailor to specific customer requirements, providing innovative and financially attractive software solutions.


Jambusters provides services nationwide and brands them with the customer’s own scheme. Many are never advertised outside the employer.

Skoot is a carbon negative lift-sharing app connecting friends that drive with friends that need lifts. It automatically calculates and collects money, and links only existing friends together. Skoot maximises users safety by checking driver’s cars and credentials in a simple app, whilst ensuring drivers don’t invalidate their insurance.


Skoot is working with employers enabling them to offer staff an effective and efficient way to Skoot the Commute – that works in real time to get to work,

On-demand mini-buses / Digital Demand Responsive Transport

Unlike traditional bus services that operate along fixed routes designed to cover areas for the general population and operate to a regular schedule, on-demand mini-buses and Digital Demand Responsive Transport services operate along fixed, flexible or semi-flexible routes. They pick people up near their homes at a requested time and dropping them at their destination, creating routes based on demand and data from their user base.

Key Features

• On flexible routes, routing is dynamic to pick-up and drop-off passengers en-route without significantly increasing the overall journey time.

• They run without a set schedule. Pick-ups and drop-offs are timed within guaranteed windows. This reconciles the requirements for flexibility with reliability and certainty.

• Booking, payment and navigation is managed by back-office IT systems, leaving the driver more able to focus on customer service.

• Micro transit services use smaller vehicles, usually minibuses, often offering power points, tables, wifi and even access to shared folding e-bikes in the boot for onward travel.

• Can be open to the public or only for specific groups such as employees.

Shared taxis

Sharing taxis is a cross between taxi use and 2+ car share, by filling spare seats in taxis.

In recent years we have seen the emergence of app-based taxi sharing where:


• Shared minicabs within a zone are offered operators such as UberPOOL and Splitcab

• The co-design process of the Navigogo MaaS pilot led to taxi fare splitting being one of the most popular features.


The main benefits of taxi sharing are the more efficient use of taxis and that it may attract people to use taxis who may otherwise have used a car.


Tandem turn local taxis, minibuses and coaches into shared shuttles to get people to work, healthcare, education and more.

Their focus is on creating solutions for towns and small cities, working in partnership with existing local taxi, minibus and coach providers.

Their platform turns existing vehicles into shared shuttles, running when and where they’re needed, and with no costs when they’re not.

Tandem can launch new services quickly, anywhere in the country. They do this in partnership with organisations like employers, employment agencies, local authorities and land developers.